Weighing Actions:

Prophet  says:

It is more lovely for Allah that a man sits for an hour thinking and weighing his actions, than if he prays for seventy years!

You must, O my brothers, be mindful of Allah in all your movements and times of stillness, at every moment, with every blink of the eye, with every thought, wish or any other state. Feel His nearness to you! Know that He looks and is Aware of you, that nothing that you conceal is hidden from Him. (Su 10-61; 20-7; )
{ He is with you whereever you are, } (Su 57-4) with His knowledge, awareness and power. If you are of the righteous, He will guide, assist and protect you.

If you find in your heart, when you call to mind the fact that Allah observes you, a shyness that prevents you from disobeying Him and drives you to exert yourself in obeying Him, you are in possession of something of the realities of vigilance (murâqabah).

 The Highest Form of Action

The highest form of action is the invocation of the Divine Name
associated with the prayer of the heart which requires the complete participation of man’s will and concentration of mind.

Two Kinds of Actions
“What a difference there is between two kinds of actions – an act whose pleasure passes away but its (ill) consequence remains and an act whose hardship passes away but its reward stays.”
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-515 no.121 (a: 118)

Ali (kw) was asked concerning Actions and Alms and he said:

man qas.s.ara fi-l `amali- btuli bi-l hammi

“Whoever falls short of actions gets into grief, (and)”

lâ h.âjata li-llahi fîman laisa li-llahi fî mâlihi wa nafihi nas.îbun

“Allah has nothing to do with him who spares nothing from his weath in the name of Allah.”
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in -517 no.126 (a: 124-5)
Human Acts of Those Morally Responsible – af’âl al-mukallifîn

 Kinds of Legal Rulings

1.3.1 (`Abd al-Wahhab Khallaf:) A legal ruling is a statement from the Lawgiver (syn. Allah or His messenger MHMD Allah bless him and give him peace) concerning the acts of those morally responsible which:

(1) requires something;
(2) allows a choice;
(3) or gives stipulations.

An injunctive ruling is one that enjoins the morally responsible individual to either do or refrain from an act, or gives him an option to do or refrain from it.

An example of enjoining one to do an act is Allah’s saying,

{ People owe Allah to make pilgrimage to the House } (Koran 3:97).

An example of enjoining one to refrain from an act is His saying,

{ Let no people mock another people } (Quran 49: 11).

And an example of giving an option to do or refrain from an act is His saying,

{ When the prayer is finished, go forth in the land } (Quran 62:10).

As for stipulatory rulings, they entail that something is made a legalreason (sabab) for another thing, a condition (shart) for it, or apreventive (mani’) of it.

An example of being stipulated as a reason for something is Allah’s saying,

{ O believers, when you go to pray, wash your faces and wash your forearms to the elbows } (Quran 5:6),

which stipulates wanting to pray as a reason for the obligation of performing ablution (wudu).

An example of something being made a condition for another thing is His saying,

{ People owe Allah to make pilgrimage to the House, whoever is able to find a way } (Quran 3:97),

which implies that the ability to get to the House (n: Kaaba) is a condition for the obligatoriness of one’s pilgrimage. Another example is the Prophet’s saying MHMD Allah bless him and give him peace):

There is no marriage unless there are two witnesses,

which means the presence of two witnesses is a condition for the validity of a marriage.

An example of being made a preventive of something is the Prophet’s saying MHMD Allah bless him and give him peace),

The killer does not inherit,

which entails that an heir’s killing the deceased is preventive of his inheriting an estate division share from him (`Ilmusulal-fiqh (y7l),100-102).  -27/28

2. Belief – îmân:

2.1 ) Iman (faith / belief) is of two kinds:
– The simple expression of faith in the teachings of the Quran and ahadith (or traditions);
– The formal declaration of belief in the six articles of Muslim creed:

  1. in Allah
  2. the Angels of Allah
  3. the holy books of Allah
  4. the Prophets of Allah
  5. the Day of Judgement
  6. Predestination to good and evil

In the traditions, iman includes practice (`amal), and all that belongs to the religious life of the Muslim.  204ii


The Muslim believes in One God, who is all-powerful and has no partner; believes in his messengers, sent to mankind for their guidance from the beginning of time; believes that Muhammad  closed the cycle of messengers and that there can be no further revelation of the divine Law after him; believes that the Quran is the Word of God, unaltered and unalterable, and believes in the obligation to conform to the ‘Five Pillars’, which are the confession of faith, the five daily prayers, payment of the poor-due, the fast of Ramadan, and performance of the Pilgrimage to Mecca by those physically and financially able to undertake it. A Muslim may neglect one or more of the pillars (except the first) and still be counted as a believer, but if he denies their necessity he has placed himself outside the community. 3u

Ali (ra) was asked concerning belief îmân and he said:

“al-îmân ma`rifatun bil-qalb,
wa iqrâr bi-lisân wa `amal bi-l arkân”

“Belief îmân is appreciation / gnosis by the heart,
acknowledgement iqrâr with tongue and action `amalun with limbs.”
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in -536 no.227 (a: 225)

Belief îmân is being true to the trust amânah which Allah has placed in man:

Surely We offered the trust (amânah) to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to bear it and shrank from it, and man has turned unfaithful to it; surely he is unjust, ignorant.
Sura The Allies (33) verse 72

Belief (iman) is incomplete for whoever does not love for his brother what he loves for himself, according to the famous hadith:
“lâ yuminu ahadukum hatta yuhibbu li-akhîhi ma yuhibbu li-nafsihi”
“He is not a believer who does not love for his brother what he loves for himself.”

Belief îmân has been explained by none other than the Angel Jibril (a.s.) in the famous hadith on islam, iman, ihsan:


Good Behavior – adab:

Adab embraces the consideration of all those moral excellencies which are enjoined by the Quran and Traditions (ahadith), as sincerity ikhlas; trust and confidence in God (tawakkul); humility (tawâdu’); resignation (tafwîz); keeping down one’s expectation (qasru-l amal); renunciation of the world (zuhd fi-ddunya; giving good counsel and advice nasiha; contentment (qanâ’ah); liberality (sakhâwah); love for Allah and man (hubb); patience (sabr).

Righteousness And Sin

Narrated An-Nawwâs (ra):

I asked the Prophet of Allah  about righteousness and sin, and he said:


Al-birru h.usnu-l khalqi, wa-l ithmu mâ h.âka fî s.adrika,
wa karihta an yat.t.ali`a `aleihi-nnâsu

Righteousness / piety is good character and sin is that which disturbs your heart, about which you do not want people to know. Muslim
 The Rules of Religion Against The World

It is related that Ibrahim Khawwas said:
“I desire Allah to give me an everlasting life in this world dunya,
in order that, while mankind are engrossed in the pleasures of the world and forget Allah, I may observe the rules of religion amidst the affliction (fitnah) of the world and remember Allah.”


Part of The Adab of Islam Is Gentleness
The Prophet  said,


“O `Â.isha, always have gentleness,
and always shun harsh words and vulgarity”
Al-Bukhari, 8.57

When a group of Jews said ugly words and `Â.isha responded in a similar way:

Yâ `Â.ishatu, inna-l llâha rafîqun 

yuh.ibbu-r rifqa fî-l amri kullihi
“O `Â.isha! Allah is kind and lenient and
likes that one should be kind and lenient in all matters.”
Al-Bukhari, 9.61

If this is the adab of Islam with hardened enemies, so how should it not apply to our fellow Muslims, let alone family and loved ones?

Leaving What Does Not Concern One
The Prophet  said,


“The excellence of a person’s Islam includes leaving what does not concern him.”

“The excellence of a person’s Islam”:

Here Muhammad Jurdani commented:
Meaning the fullness and perfection of a person’s Islam and his submission to its rules includes leaving what does not concern him, meaning that which is not connected with what is important to one, be it in word or deed.
The matters that concern a person are those connected with necessities of life in gaining a livelihood and having a safe return in the afterlife. These do not amount to much in comparison with what does not concern one.

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Al Fayda of Islam ~Allah-umma Salli 'ala Sayyidina Mohammadin al-Fati'hi limaa ughliqa, wal khatimi limaa sabaqa, Naasiri-l-'Haqqi bil-'Haqqi wal Hadi ilaa Siratiqa-l-Mustaqim, wa 'ala aalihi 'haqqa Qadrihi wa Miqdaarihi-l-'Adhim.

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